deck seamanship manual

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deck seamanship manual

Different browsers and fonts will causeHowever, this text was captured by optical character recognition and then encoded for the Web which has added new errors we wish to correct.Its deficiencies were so numerous and so obvious and the circumstances under which it was prepared so well known that apologies seemed altogether superfluous.He has performed his work intelligently and well, leaving out what was obsolete, introducing much new material, rearranging the subjects, and bringing the text down to the present time.V, Proceedings U. S. Naval Institute.Getting a lower yard on board, sending down a lower yard inside of rigging, rigging derricks, and carrying out anchors between two cutters in shoal water, are described from actual work performed under his direction.Sometimes vessels are built in docks, which are artificial basins with level floors, shut off from outside waters by gates or by a single dam known as a caisson. These gates are water-tight and can be opened or closed; the dock is supplied with means for pumping out the water or letting it in.A rabbet, similar to the one scored in the keel, is cut into the sides of the stem and receives the forward ends of the outside planking, which are called the fore hood-ends.It is fitted like the stem with a rabbet on each side to receive the after-ends of the outside planking, or after-hoods, and it is strengthened by the introduction of a stern-post knee (10), inner post (11), and the after-deadwood (12). Above the latter is the after-deadwood knee (13).They stand mostly at right angles to the keel and each is formed of two parts joined together, each part being in itself made up of several pieces. The lowest portions of a square frame are called the floor-timbers; above these come the futtocks, then the long or short top-pieces. The starboard and port side of each frame form one continuous piece.The keelson is bolted through frames, keel, and deadwood.

There are usually additional keelsons at each side of the main keelson, known as sister keelsons (20). There are also boiler or bilge keelsons to support the boilers (19). Bilge-keels are exterior keels bolted on to the bottom of the ship on either side of and parallel to the main keel, and at some distance from the latter, to prevent rolling in vessels of certain form.These curved supports, secured to either side of the ship, are termed breast-hooks (15) forward and stern-hooks (16) aft; when they support a deck they are called deck-hooks.It is known as the limber-strakes (21) nearest the keelson. These strakes extend along the bottom of the ship on either side of theThe beams are supported by posts or stanchions (23) in their centre, and by clamps at each end. They are joined to the sides of the ship by iron or wooden knees, known as hanging (24), lodging (25), lap (26), or dagger (corruption of diagonal) knees, from their positions and form.Usually circular.Usually forward on the berth-deck or leading off of fore-passage.Such are the studding-sail boom-irons on the lower and top-sail yards.Usually situated in the after orlop.Where the rise of the forecastle towards the waste of the ship, ends. Commonly used to define the after side of a top-gallant forecastle.Commonly used in speaking of the forward end of the poop.Through these ports are led the bridles of tow-lines or warps.On the gun-deck of a ship with flush spar-deck, or under the poop ( poop-cabin ) of a single-decked vessel or one having a poop in addition to a covered gun-deck. In the latter case the gun-deck cabin is usually occupied by a flag officer.At present understood to mean light platforms in the wings where spare rigging is stowed.Chain chests. Lockers in the channels for the storage of wash-deck gear.Top-mast cross-trees resting on the top-mast trestle-trees, extend the top-gallant shrouds.Fore and Aft. Lying in the direction of the ship's length.

Also an open space through the bulwarks as a passageway in and out of the ship.Is situated below the berth-deck and at the forward end.When the guns are carried on the upper-deck, its name as spar-deck remains unchanged.A net-work of ropes was formerly used for this purpose, hence the term; other nettings will be described, as used.Usually made of canvas and stuffed, thenUsually understood to mean the rudder, tiller, and wheel, or the whole of the steering arrangement.Limber-boards, the covering of the limbers.Shot-locker, aIn modern ships usually opens into the after-passage; some vessels have forward sail-rooms in fore-passage.Copper sheathing coversThe name applies at present to the paymaster's store-room for dry provisions.The fore and main masts are stepped at present in iron steps fitted over the main-keelson, with flanges to the sister-keelsons. The mizzen-mast step is a piece of timber secured to the orlop or berth deck beams.A deck raised over the forward end of the spar-deck extending from the bows nearly or quite to the fore-mast.A mast-head truck is also fitted to receive the spindle of the lightning-rod.The rooms on the starboard side occupied by the line officers, those on the port side by the staff officers-the intervening space is styled the ward-room country.Bridle-ports are fitted with such chocks, which can be removed when not in use.Usually on the berth-deck, two on each side, forward of the steerage. The boatswain and gunner occupy the starboard, the carpenter and sail-maker the port rooms.Pronounced with.Lower studdingsail sheet. 43. Lower studdingsail clew-line. 44. Outer halliards. 45. Topmast studdingsail tack. 46. Topmast studdingsail downhaul. 47. T'gllt stuns'l tack. 48. Quarter boat. 49. Waist boat.

Vessels are divided according to their rig into numerous classes, of which the following may be mentioned as the principal types usually met with at sea:Three masted,Two masted,Two masted,The clews, or lower corners, of the upper topsail are shackled to the yard arms of the lower topsail yard.To this direction, as a standard, all others may be referred, and any desired course thus followed.The North end, or pole, of the needle is fixed under the North point of the card. The needle and card are balanced on a pivot fixed vertically in the compass-box, or bowl, and the whole is protected by a glass covering.North. A lighthouse or other object if seen bearing North would also be said to bear, from that ship: Ahead.Bearing South: Astern.In practice the yard is braced up sharper, to make the sail stand to better advantage.With the wind East in the figure, it is said to be two points free, or abeam, as shown in the remarks on relative bearings. If the wind is at S. in the figure, it is said to be aft.Close hauled, with the port tacks aboard, heading S. S.E., you bear up, keeping away six points, how will the ship head, and how will the wind be with reference to the ship's beam.Hand lead lines are marked as follows:At 3 fathoms from the lead, with 3 strips of leather. At 5 fathoms from the lead, with a white rag. At 7 fathoms from the lead, with a red rag. At 10 fathoms from the lead, with leather, having a hole in it. At 13 fathoms from the lead, as at 3. At 15 fathoms from the lead, as at 5. At 17 fathoms from the lead, as at 7. At 20 fathoms from the lead, with 2 knots. At 25 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. At 30 fathoms from the lead, with three knots. At 35 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. At 40 fathoms from the lead, with four knots. And so on.

He communicates to the officer the soundings obtained, thus:If at night, he should take the distance from the breast-rope to the water's edge; then at each cast deduct this distance from the mark at hand and give it as the true sounding.This information, compared with the description of the sea bottom given on the chart, may prove of value in determining the ship's position. Instead of being hollowed out at the bottom, the deep-sea lead may have a specimen cup, of brass, at the end, as shown in Fig. 4. The coasting and deep-sea lines are marked alike as follows:The men are ranged outside the vessel from the weather mizzen chains to the cathead. The line is passed forward outside and clear of everything. The lead is sent forward on deck, and the line bent to it by the captain of the forecastle. The line is then hauled forward, each man collecting a coil of several fathoms in his hand, commencing forward, until the officer thinks there is line enough out. It is then snatched in a small snatch-block, Fig. 5, secured to theEverything being in readiness, and the vessel's headway sufficiently deadened, the officer orders, Stand by. Heave! The captain of the forecastle heaves the lead as far forward as he can, and at the same time cries, Watch-ho. Watch! And each man, as the line runs out from his hand, holds it clear of the side, and repeats the cry, Watch-ho. Watch! In the mean while, the line runs out until the lead touches the bottom, or until a sufficient quantity has been run out to satisfy the officer that no bottom has been found. The men then lay aft and man the line.The motion is communicated to a register wheel, and the number of fathoms corresponding to the depth of water is pointed out by an indicator. This lead should also have a good arming of tallow to bring up specimens of the bottom.Of course, this is only necessary in a stiff breeze, or at night. But in a vessel-of-war, it should be observed as a standing rule, without regard to the weather.

By this you will have instant notice if the vessel parts her cable or drags her anchor.To this is fastened a line, about 150 fathoms long, called the log-line, which is divided into certain spaces called knots, and is wound on a reel, Fig. 7, which turns very easily. The Glass is of the same form as an Hour-Glass, Fig. 8, and containing such a quantity of sand as will run through the hole in its neck in twenty-eight seconds.Previous to marking a new Log-line, it is soaked in water for a few days, in order to get it in the condition it will be when in use.He also compares all the sand-glasses with a watch, and if any should be incorrect, he makes them run the proper time by taking out or putting in sand, as the case requires. During daylight, especially in very damp weather, it is preferable to use a watch to a sand-glass for noting the time. Errors of the glass due to moisture are commonly corrected by drying it at the galley.The reel being immediately stopped, the last mark run off shows the number of knots, and the distance of that mark from the rail is estimated in tenths. Then the knots and tenths together show the distance the ship has run the preceding hour, if the wind has been constant. But if the wind has not been the same during the whole hour, or interval of time between heaving the log, or if there has been more sail set or handed, a proper allowance must be made. Sometimes, when the ship is before the wind, and a great sea setting after her, it will bring home the log. In such cases, it is customary to allow one mile in ten, and less in proportion if the sea be not so great. Allowance ought also to be made, if there be a head sea.You must also be careful to measure the log-line pretty often, lest it stretch and deceive you in the distance. Like regard must be had that the glass be just 28 seconds; otherwise no accurate account of the ship's way can be kept. The glass is much influenced by the weather, running slower in damp weather than in dry.

The twenty-eight and fourteen second glasses are called respectively the long and short glasses.It should be rigged out by a spar, so as to clear the wake, and care taken to haul it in whenever the ship is stopped.In one patent of this kind there is placed between the register and fly a conical hollow metal piece upon which the vibrations due to pitching are taken.The tube is supported in the water at low speeds by the buoy in Fig. 12. The mercurial gauge, Fig. 13, is on board the vessel; at present a metallic gauge is generally substituted.The graduations on the vacuum-gauge are found by experiment. Published jointly by the Royal Navy and The Nautical Institute, the book has becomes a leading publication on the subject. All share the same need to carry out seamanship tasks safely at all times. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Used: GoodPlease try again.Please try again.Please try again. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. This was the message today (Wednesday) at the launch of the 12th edition of The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship, authored by the Royal Navy and published by The Nautical Institute. For the officers in charge, the emphasis in training is on technology and weapons rather than seamanship. Most of our mentoring efforts are specifically targeted at building seamanship skills.” That is what The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship gives us. By use, by time, by revision, by clarity of expression and illustration its explicit authority makes it the de facto bible of the sea; a must for those who go down to the sea in ships.”.

But of course high standards and safe practice do not just wander on deck when invited.Fundamentally this means preparing the ship for sea and keeping her seaworthy. It is a top-down and bottom-up mind-set and proactive behaviour that protects the ship, her crew and the environment against the perils of the sea.” The introduction of the next generation of ships and submarines, including the Daring Class destroyers, Queen Elizabeth Class carriers and Astute Class submarines necessitates that the seamanship lessons are already widely in use to reflect new technology and procedures.” He commended the book as “of vital importance to all seafarers”. This would deny the right of transit to China and Russia not only on the surface of the passage, but also for the.While highlighting the success for its first cruise ship that resumed sailing last month, MSC Cruises changed the program for its second ship. MSC Cruises had planned to resume cruises in the eastern Mediterranean aboard its second cruise ship the MSC Magnifica sailing from the ports of Bari and Trieste, Italy. The MSC Magnifica was.One of her crewmembers tested positive during a routine check on September 10, and Color Line canceled the vessel's scheduled Saturday departure as a precautionary measure. All other crewmembers were also tested to determine if there might be additional cases, and all passengers who were on board for the affected voyage were notified. However, the suspected case turned out to be a false alarm. The.The port later sent it best wishes for a quick recovery to the crane operator while also saying normal operations had resumed at the port. Fire Theory In addition to in-depth coverage of boat handling and navigation, you’ll find instructions for dealing with extreme situations, including search and rescue, towing, firefighting, vessel flood management, righting capsized boats, and maneuvering in heavy surf.

You’ll also learn aboutNow this accumulated wisdom is yours with the Small-Boat Seamanship Manual. Condition: Good. New Ed. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside.The dust jacket is in good condition. Booksavers receives donated books and recycles them in a variety of ways. Proceeds benefit the work of Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) in the U.S. and around the world.Dust Jacket Condition: Dustjacket included. Later Edition. ISBN 087021361X. Small Hardback. Reprint edition of 1903 classic. Very Good condition book, with minor rubs and bumps to cover corners and edges, slight dustsoiling and browning to edges of interior pages, in a Very Good condition dustjacket with minor rubs and creases around its edges.Tight, sound, unmarked copy.All Rights Reserved. It will allow seafarers to acquire the necessary knowledge and understanding of this challenging environment which, when combined with practical experience, will enable safe navigation in ice. It describes the appearance and characteristics of the various types of ice and explains how shiphandling procedures may differ according to type. The book looks at different design, construction and operating considerations. It lists the key items to be considered and provides useful checklists for both the deck and engine departments. A separate chapter looks at sources and methods of acquiring ice and weather information, according to the ship, its location and the technology available. It discusses correct clothing, dangers of exposure and hazards to health. It discusses watchkeeping and bridge procedures, position fixing, use of radar and ice accretion. This is followed by a chapter on shiphandling in ice, with emphasis on approaching and entering the ice, manoeuvring, berthing and anchoring.

The navigator is concerned with the Keeping a proper lookout and New shipping routes have opened up and It is designed to protect the environment from shipping, and equally to protect those In icy environments This manual will In total, around 59% of the world’s cargo fleet is a BIMCO member, measured by dead weight tonnes (DWT). The core of the BIMCO membership is around 800 shipowner members who combined control around 83% of containership tonnage, 59% of dry bulk tonnage and 51% of tanker tonnage (all measured by DWT). BIMCO therefore works to promote and secure global standards and regulations for the maritime sector. BIMCO is considered the world leader in developing standard contracts and clauses in shipping. Number of Pages: 440 Product Code: WS1665K ISBN: ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-833-5 (9781856098335), ISBN 10: 1-85609-833-8 (1856098338) Published Date: July 2019 Book Height: 305 mm Book Width: 215 mm Book Spine: 30 mm Weight: 2.40 kg The book is excellent to learn ice navigation and give very good explanation hoe to conduct a safe navigation under the Polar Code 2018 Areas as well in areas outside of the polar code e.g. Baltic Sea. “The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook” is build with the needs of good planning structure for ice navigation and the use of the required POLARIS which has to be calculated in the planning process in relation to the requirements given in the Polar Code 2018. Useful explanation of the proper use of the vessels ice class for the charter agreement, planning and conduct of vessel in ice regime are well practical explained and can be used from a new educated ice navigator or be used as inspiration and reflection for an experienced ice navigator or ice advisor on the polar code advanced level. Especially the sketches and pictures showing the real world and the approach which need to be consider by the ice navigator.

One of the other good chapter in the book is the explicit practical explanation how you can plan work of the crew and protect them in the polar code area and in a ice regime which can be found outside of the area covered by the polar code. The whole book needs to be learned and understand by the responsible inspector form a shipping company which is in charge of the overall ice in relation to the planning of voyages inside the polar code or outside the polar code areas. Shipping companies will get important inspiration from chapter 12 and what needs to be done in the planning and conduct of a sea voyage or operation in a ice regime to understands the needs to protect the sensitive environment in polar code areas. And in special areas which is mentioned in MARPOL. The book gives a basic ice navigator and a advanced ice navigator good inspiration and practical instruction what needs to be trained from basic to advanced level on board of a vessel in ice regimes to meet the requirements which are addressed by the Polar Code 2018 before the candidate is attending the advanced polar code training. From my point of you and experienced as a member of the International Ice Charting Workgroup is chapter 6 “Forecasting and Reporting Ice Conditions” very well explained and is focusing of the mariners needs on the basic level in relation to the polar code. For the advanced level the chapter 6.10 “Use of Satellite Imagery for Onboard Navigation” is well presented and gives the readers a possibility to understand modern technology and distribution of important ice information for the ice advisor and the advanced ice navigator or ice pilot. The sat imagery is the future of service which will meet the requirements for the ice services around the world mentioned in the polar code 2018.Why not review it? Navigators should learn to identify the different ice types so as to take appropriate action in adequate time.

Ice is formed when the temperature is low enough that water freezes into a solid state of matter. Ice is composed of water with varying levels of salinity. Salinity and Temperature The process of sea ice formation is different to fresh water ice formation. In seawater, the presence of salt causes the density of the water to increase nearer to its freezing point. As the salt water sinks away from the cold surface before it is cool enough to freeze, it forms more slowly than fresh water ice. The freezing point of salt water is lower than fresh water and will vary according to the salinity. Fresh water ice is very hard but brittle and is very strong. Snow ice is a type that is also found on lakes or rivers. It is granular, opaque and white, with no large ice crystals. It is formed when snow cover is saturated by rain or by submersion in a lake. 1.2 Sea Ice Courtesy NSIDC Figure 1.6 — Sea ice Figure 1.7 — Mixed sea ice Sea ice is very different to fresh water ice. The freezing point of salt water varies according to its salinity. Water expands as it freezes. However, once it is ice it shrinks as it becomes colder. As the ice season progresses, any salts gradually drain from the ice until, after approximately one year, the ice is formed of almost completely fresh water. The older the ice, the harder it will become. There are several different types of ice found in sea and fresh water. The type of ice will change subject to accretion and de-accretion, as factors such as time, temperature, salinity, pressure, wind and depth all have an effect on the ice. Given the right conditions, ice will begin a transition from new ice, to young ice, to first-year ice and finally to multi-year ice (see Figure 1.8). 6The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook Frazil Grease Slush Shuga Nilas Thin Medium Thick Second-year Multi-year Grey Grey-white New ice Old ice Young ice First-year ice Figure 1.8 — Ice types 1.2.

1 New Ice New ice is a general term for recently formed ice, which includes frazil ice, grease ice, slush and shuga. These types are composed of ice crystals that are only weakly frozen together (if at all). They will be less than 10 cm thick. Frazil Ice Courtesy Stanislas Devorsine Figure 1.9 — Frazil ice in water column, Antarctica Frazil ice consists of fine spicules or plates of ice suspended in the water column. Grease Ice Grease ice, which is a later stage of freezing than frazil ice, occurs when the crystals start to form a layer on the surface. Grease ice reflects little light, giving the water a matte appearance. It may resemble oil in appearance, hence the name. Slush Ice Slush ice is snow that is saturated and mixed with ice on the surface of the water. It can occur after a heavy snowfall and a period of high winds. Shuga Ice Shuga ice is an accumulation of spongy white ice lumps that have a diameter of a few centimetres. It has a thickness of about 5 cm. Ice rind is easily broken by wind or swell, commonly breaking into rectangular pieces. Nilas This is a thin elastic crust of ice that easily bends on waves and swell. Nilas has a matte surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness. It may be subdivided into dark nilas and light nilas, or thin and thick nilas. The pieces of ice have raised rims due to the pieces striking against one another. Ice at various stages of formation may be present in the same area. 1.2.2 Young Ice This is ice at a further stage of development, between nilas and first-year ice. It is grey in colour but, as it increases in thickness, it becomes whiter. It is more likely to raft than ridge under pressure. It is thicker than first-year ice and, in contrast to multi- year ice, summer melting produces a regular pattern of numerous small puddles that are usually greenish-blue. Multi-year Ice This is old ice that has survived at least two summers’ melt. Hummocks are smoother than on second-year ice and it will be almost salt free.

Where bare, this ice is usually blue in colour. The melt pattern consists of large interconnecting, irregular puddles and a well developed drainage system. Melt pools In the Arctic during the summer, snow and ice melt on the surface of the ice pack and create ice pools, although the melting effect rarely reaches to the ocean below. As winter returns, the melt pools re- freeze, appearing as glassy surfaces among the weathered hummocks of the pack ice. Figure 1.26 — Multi-year ice 12The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook 1.3 Glacial Ice This is ice of land origin and is made up of icebergs, bergy bits and growlers. It should be noted that the colours used to describe ice types usually depend on the light that falls on them, but can sometimes be due to contaminants within the ice structure. Some icebergs appear green (jade icebergs) because of a mixture of particulate protein-nitrogen contaminants. Glacial ice is generally white in appearance, but will often sparkle with reflected sunlight and appear blue. However, if viewed at night with the moon directly ahead, it can be seen as a silhouette. Growlers can generally only be observed at close range, as they lie low in the water. 1.3.1 Icebergs Icebergs are large pieces of ice that have formed over time on land which subsequently break off and float in the water. Large icebergs may be hundreds of metres or even several kilometres in length. Regardless of the iceberg size, icebergs present a significant danger to ships. A proper lookout and a safe speed are essential. Icebergs are subjected to wave action, weathering, melting on sun surfaces and underwater melting by warm currents, leading to erosion and cracking. As the cracks deepen, bergy bits break away, making the iceberg unstable. Ongoing erosion reduces the size of the bergy bits until they become growlers. The iceberg itself will continue to erode and may well ground and break up.

They are, therefore, always close to a constant state of capsize and this is their pattern as they melt. Arctic icebergs are formed from the effects of tide and wave action on a tongue of ice at the end of a glacier, which causes a large ice formation to drop from the glacier’s front into the sea. Tabular icebergs break away from an ice shelf and, although they can be found in Arctic waters from the few ice shelves that do exist, are more characteristic of the Antarctic seas. Arctic tabular bergs tend to be smaller than the Antarctic versions. Figure 1.29 — Large tabular iceberg Courtesy Michael Lloyd Figure 1.30 — Tabular iceberg seen from a bridge 14The Ice Navigation and Seamanship Handbook Figure 1.31 — A non-tabular iceberg, with a weathered pinnacle TABULARDOMEDPINNACLE DRYDOCK A ?at-topped iceberg, with a very large length to height ratio in excess of 5:1. A large, smooth, round- topped solid iceberg. An iceberg with one or more central spires or dominant pyramid peaks. An iceberg with a steep edge on one side and a slope on the opposite side. BLOCKY Steep sided with a ?at top of solid appearance and a length to height ratio of 5:1. TILTED BLOCKY A blocky iceberg that has tilted to present itself in a triangular view on certain bearings. Figure 1.32 — Iceberg shapes and definitions Figure 1.33 — Decomposing drydock iceberg seen from the air Drifting of an iceberg is affected more by the current than the wind and icebergs may even travel upwind. This may cause ice floes to develop leeward. For other uses, see seafarers. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. ( Learn how and when to remove these template messages ) Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. ( February 2014 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.